Constitutional Emendation

Retirements in the Judiciary one and the Legislativochegam, the average, R$ 14 a thousand. It would be a value total just, case this nofosse defrayed by the collect of contributions of workers with rendaentre average and low. Ahead of the current circumstances and the complexity of the subject, everything leads to believe that in few years probably containment with the intention of if preventing the total esvaziamento of the resources will have to be taken medidasde social daseguridade. Today, the limit for the retirement for Instituto Nacionalde Seguridade Social (INSS), contributing for the maximum ceiling of 354,00 R$ porms, is of R$ 3,218, 90, taking in consideration a worker who keeps professional suasatividades until the 65 years, situation that it would isentaria of the dofator calculation previdencirio gift in the current legislation. , One minoriade evidently diligent obtains to fulfill the requirements mentioned for desfrutardesse limit in its retirement, when compared with the enormous number decontribuintes that, in its great majority, they are wage-earning.

The Constitutional Emendation n 41 also innovated of maneirabenfica for the public coffers, but unusually of form prejudicialcontra the pensioners. From 2008, the pensioners had come back to have in seusproventos referring debits to the contribution toward the social security. That is, they had started to pay again for what they had conquered with contributions durantetoda its professional life. A double contribution is had here. Confiscontido of the revenues of the pensioner to help to finance, for example, osaltos unemployment indices which provoke a considerable reduction in nvelde prescription collection. In order to retake the balance between the combenefcios expenditures and the collection of contributions in the regimen of the public welfare, oGoverno acts increasing the value of the contributions and diminishing the dosbenefcios values, beyond making it difficult the possibilities of precocious retirements, saved in the cases of permanent invalidity. In other words, today trabalhadorprecisa in such a way to contribute more as well as to work more to retire maistarde.

Federal Constitution

. Term introduced for Antonie de Montchrtien in 1615 and used for the study of the production relations enters the three main divisions of the bourgeois society: the capitalists, the proletarians and the large estate owners. From the displayed one above, Classic School will be given to prominence to the thought of the Classic School in special Adam Smith.2 FisiocratasO classic Liberalism is an ideology that defends the maximizao of the individual freedom by means of the law and right of action. It advocates a society characterized for the free initiative, where the State does not have> 1790), author of Assay on the wealth of the nations laissez-faire, to laissez-passer, laisser-vivre Rocking of the Neoliberalismo, considers that the neoliberalismo is a radicalization of economic liberalism. It is a set of practical and ideas directed toward the construction of an absolutely free society of state interferences, especially in the economic field, also regulating. After terms seen the thought liberal, more specifically of the fisiocrata Adam Smith, we will analyze Article 170 of the Federal.3 Constitution Analysis of article 170 of the FederalO Constitution Brazilian liberalism meets contemplated in the Federal Constitution, although the beddings of the State to be of the Welfare state (articles 1, 3 and 5), however article 173 of the Great Letter establishes limits, as much in what it says respect to the ample freedom, imposing to them controls, as in the case ofthe participation of the State in the economic domain. In> verbis: Art. 1 the Federative Republic of Brazil, formed for the indissolvable union of the States and Cities and the Federal District, consists in Democratic State of Right and has as beddings: IV – the social values of the work and the free initiative; Art. 3 basic objective Constituem of the Federative Republic of Brazil: I – to construct a free society, solidary joust and; III – to eradicate the poverty and the marginalizao and to reduce the social and regional inaqualities; IV – to promote the good of all, without preconceptions of origin, race, sex, color, age and any other forms of discrimination.

Saragossa Constitution

Protests in diverse Spanish cities, among them Madrid, from the 18:00 hour from Atocha. Barcelona, Bilbao, San Sebastin, Logroo, Malaga, Cceres, Jerez and Saragossa, among others, will lodge manifestations. It will be requested to realise a rrndum so that the citizens vote the constitutional reform agreed by PSOE and PP. For Friday 2 of September, in addition, one has been anticipated " day of lucha". The movement 15M has summoned for this Sunday in diverse Spanish cities, among them Madrid, mobilizations of protest against the reform of the Constitution agreed by the PSOE and the PP, that the budgetary discipline in the Public Administrations will introduce. In Madrid, the work group of Sun Economy has made a call so that the citizens indicate from the 18:00 hours, from Atocha to the Door of the Sun, with the motto " Not to this reform of the Constitution. Nor an one step back! ".

According to the convoking ones through an official notice have informed, in the Door of the Sun will be celebrated one general assembly to continue deepening in the constitutional reform. For Friday 2 of September, in addition, one has been anticipated " day of lucha" in order to treat action and strategies. Next to Madrid, protests in Barcelona, Bilbao, San Sebastin, Logroo, Malaga, Cceres, Jerez and Saragossa will be celebrated, among others. According to the promoters of the protests, this " reform exprs" of the Constitution it tries, " to impose the benefit of a few on the will of mayora" with the excuse to order the finances, " to the dictation of the markets and the preservative governments of the powers europeas". In August and with the concluded legislature, it says the official notice, " the moment at which it is decided to modify the Constitution reflects a seguidismo to the most excellent representatives of the European right: Merkel/Sarkozy". And " in the wretch case that &quot has not delegated sufficient to prevent this democratic shoddy work; , the convoking ones of the protests demand that a rrndum is celebrated, in which will ask to vote " no". Source of the news: ' 15M' it summons for this Sunday protests against the constitutional reform

National Constitution

The ethical-historical dimension of " project-of-pas" it aims at the reconciliation of a national community and has two fundamental components: On the one hand, the memory and the collective recognition of the nature of the crisis; on the other hand, the collective and institutional recognition of the evil and the radical truth, justice and repair like ethical horizon, although cannot practically be realised in their integrity. As it can observe, any " project-of-pas" in Venezuela it must be in favor referenced of the National Constitution and to be able to combine public democracy with social justice, that is to say, liberties and institutional expression of the popular sovereignty, with greater equality, cohesion or integration of the society. He is not, as You affirm, something " negativo" or something that leads to the confusion, although IF HE IS something about which all we must think, because exactly " eso" (" project-of-pas") it is what it needs to us in Venezuela. Why &quot is so important; project-of-pas" tie to the historical memory of the Nation? The institutions are crystallizations of the one memory society and of its fights and in the case of most of our present political institutionality and Constitution, which has been crystallized is not the memory of this country nor of its majorities, but the one of the winners in the elections of 1998, the same conculcadores of the institutionality of the State, by work and grace of a impdica and forgetful abstention that placed to the institutionality of the State in hands and discretion of a single of the branches of Government. Point N 3: " We include/understand that our Constitution does not follow ideologies but offers laws that in the countries have that them fulfill and them have promoted well-being and prosperity. Laws that demonstrate that only with true democracies it is possible to be obtained the greater equality and the greater possible well-being: true socialismo." Commentaries to the N3 Point: False.

National Constitution

The ethical-historical dimension of " project-of-pas" it aims at the reconciliation of a national community and has two fundamental components: On the one hand, the memory and the collective recognition of the nature of the crisis; on the other hand, the collective and institutional recognition of the evil and the radical truth, justice and repair like ethical horizon, although cannot practically be realised in their integrity. As it can observe, any " project-of-pas" in Venezuela it must be in favor referenced of the National Constitution and to be able to combine public democracy with social justice, that is to say, liberties and institutional expression of the popular sovereignty, with greater equality, cohesion or integration of the society. He is not, as You affirm, something " negativo" or something that leads to the confusion, although IF HE IS something about which all we must think, because exactly " eso" (" project-of-pas") it is what it needs to us in Venezuela. Why &quot is so important; project-of-pas" tie to the historical memory of the Nation? The institutions are crystallizations of the one memory society and of its fights and in the case of most of our present political institutionality and Constitution, which has been crystallized is not the memory of this country nor of its majorities, but the one of the winners in the elections of 1998, the same conculcadores of the institutionality of the State, by work and grace of a impdica and forgetful abstention that placed to the institutionality of the State in hands and discretion of a single of the branches of Government. Point N 3: " We include/understand that our Constitution does not follow ideologies but offers laws that in the countries have that them fulfill and them have promoted well-being and prosperity. Laws that demonstrate that only with true democracies it is possible to be obtained the greater equality and the greater possible well-being: true socialismo." Commentaries to the N3 Point: False.

Public Administrations

It has said that the cost rule will have to include the flexibility for when there is recession, a natural disaster or a catastrophe that demands stimulus measures. There is no time to create a new tax that burdens these rents. The economic vice-president, Elena Salgado, have said that with the reform of the Constitution a maximum structural deficit for all the Public Administrations will pay attention " very near cero" for one " situation normal" , to that it hopes that &quot is arrived as of 2018.; In a normal situation the deficit would have to be zero or very near one zero. That situation we want normal it to locate in the Constitution as of the year 2018-2020" , it has explained in declarations to RNE. Salgado has insisted on which in the long term and in normal situation the public deficit would have to be " very limitado" , but without the possibility that is eliminated policies of fiscal stimulus can be adopted when they require it to the circumstances. " The cost rule will have to include the flexibility for when there is recession, a natural disaster or one catastrophe that demands stimulus measures, although that leads to that in a certain year mayor&quot is a deficit; , it has affirmed. The vice-president has clarified who the present public deficit, that will stand out to 6% of the GIP in 2011, does not correspond to a normality situation, and therefore is not a structural deficit, but she derives from adverse an economic context that forced to adopt fiscal stimuli and has lifted the amount of the benefits by unemployment. On the other hand, in declarations to the chain TO BE, Salgado has left the door abierta to that Friday the Government approves an increase of the fiscal pressure in the great fortunes, since to create a new tax that burdens these rents said that &quot already; there is no tiempo".

" For a new tax on great fortunes there is no time. In order to increase the pressure on the great fortunes, permtame that we wait for viernes" , it said. With respect to if the great fortunes of the country have sent to some letter to the Ministry of Economy and Property soliciing an increase of tax, since it has happened in France or States United, the minister said not to have received anything in writing. Source of the news: Elena Salgado says that the Constitution will determine a deficit limit very near zero

Right Security

Differently of these countries, critical established here it falls again on the Brazilian public politics that are transparent inefficient and inefficacious, has seen that they are lastreadas in minimizing differences, to elaborate projects to increase the security sensation (to the step that would have to guarantee the security), to increase contingents, to construct penitentiaries, to concursar officers of justice, to contract temporary and commissioned, beyond other insignificant actions (in virtue of the discontinuity), concise and exitosa rank that are not projected, planned, structuralized, defined and determined in coherent way. The actions more ‘ ‘ expressivas’ ‘ applied in the Brazilian Public Security throughout the last times they had seemed to have been bred to give continuity to the projects of previous governments, failed for the mediation of the state machine, either for social reason, politician, cultural, moral, ethical or another one any alleged. Thus exactly, these actions had incurred into the same imperfections that already implanted in the processes of passed governments, that is, had been created with the main purpose to act in the imediatismo, without any evolutivo planning and of development, diminishing (and in some cases frustrando) the perspectives of improvement of the security, glimpsed for all the society. However, the purpose of this small sample is to alicerar the Right to the Security that the individuals possess, demonstrating for in such a way the deficiencies of the system, the trespasses to the basic rights, the lack of efficient public politics and efficient and the discontinued actions of the public managers in its programs, projects and parcerias.3 CONSIDERAES FINAISAs consideraes referenciadas here denote the unrestricted concern main to provide the preservation of the rules constitutional in the public politics of Security, in way that if can guarantee the citizens worthy conditions of pacific and harmonious convivncia. One also verified that the resqucios of the times of long ago, where the governments were commanded by aristocrats, large estate owners with proper interests and until adepts of the military repression? with marcantes characteristics of dictators? still they persist, compromising the development of efficient and efficient public politics of security. Although all the efforts undertaken for the current governments, in set with the society, as well as other involved actors in the process, still perceive a great imbalance of projects, programs and actions destined to the satisfaction of the daily and constant necessities of public security. However, with the proportionate hope for the Federal Constitution of 1988, when it aimed at main the defense of human rights e, consequentemente, of the basic rights, we can, at last, dream of better days in the security, in not forgetting that each one must make its part. The quarrel here proposal, of concise and shortened form, does not try to deplete the related subjects, so great the importance and relevance that these represent for the society and mundo.

Federal District Law

The article of chapter V of LDB 9394/96 deals with the special education, a modality of special education for all those that if to consider as special. However the objective of the law is not to form classroom in the schools only for pupils special, but yes, to qualify them it to frequentar the regular schools and for this it is necessary of prepared professionals. Professors with specialization adjusted in average or superior level, for specialized attendance, as well as professors of regular education enabled to the integration of these educandos in the common classrooms (LDB, article 59, III, 1996). To leave from there, to guarantee to educating its entrance in the market of work with priority in public competitions and the fulfilling of the vacant in private companies. These companies are obliged to destine a percentage of vacant to be busy for considered people deficient, this percentage are of 20% for federal public companies this percentage are lesser for the municipal and state public companies, the private companies go to depend on the number of employees who they to hold, as Law 8112/90.

LDB 9,394/96 determines in articles 9 and 87, respectively, that it fits to the Union, the elaboration of the Plan, in contribution with the States, the Federal District and the Cities, and institutes the Decade of the Education. It still establishes, that the Union directs the Plan to the National Congress, one year after the publication of the cited law, with lines of direction and goals for the ten posterior years, in tune with the World-wide Declaration on Education for All. With the Federal Constitution of 1988 the LDB foresees the PNE authenticating the idea of a national plan of long stated period resurged, with act of law. In 1998 4,155 is presented the project of law n, approving, thus the National Plan of Education.

Carbon Credits

They vantagemem it to Destarte to use its certificates of carbon credits, Brazil, the example dospases African, has that to face a more complex mechanism for obtenode certificates, this in virtue of the high index of risk of existenteno credit country, culminated for the weight of the insolvency, the call ' ' RiscoBrasil' '. Either, one more time the question comes back toward the economic and noambiental text. The subject logically de a infindvel complexity, we cannot arrive in port the pollution, central focus dadiscusso, in the platform of mere merchandise, this is what it has occurred, levandotodos to a vision extremely maken a mistake of the routes to be obeyed for areduo of the effect of the global heating. To compose one panoramacom contribution of diverse sectors and fields of research is, and it will always be, important to the quarrel, however we do not have to mix ambient protection eeconomia in one same direction, this in them can take the errors without precedents. If tencionouque the carbon certificates were never transformed only into a species conditional financial deoperao to generate profits to its investors, to semgerar any species of advantages to the environment in itself. Lack worthy deinterpretao? Explicit exploitation of economic potential? Not possvel to affirm, in fact we have witnessed a continuous mutation in the market decomercializao of certifyd of credit of carbon, alavancada pelasnotcias and referring forecasts to the global heating.

What in fact existe a urgent necessity of if planning reevaluations on the institute, deformed to be possible to line up its reasons to the constant modifications nocenrio of the world-wide environment. The mechanisms denegociao of carbon credits can be excellent instruments of diminuiode launching of pollutants in the environment, are treated, before everything, of aoafirmativa. It would not be louvvelsimplesmente to exterminar all the innumerable deriving businesses of the comercializaodos Carbon Credits, societies specialized in the subject are comumentecriadas, day after days, professionals of the highest answer sheet come back suasatenes to the subject, and everything this, of certain form, fortifies the quarrel.