Definitions, frequencies and causes, as well as therapeutic interventions for stuttering stuttering is defined as a disruption of the flow of speech. It begins in childhood (at about 5% of all children) and becomes chronic, if she’s not gone until young adulthood (at 1% of all adults). Mostly, the children speak first liquid and often causes a significant child event such as z.B the birth of siblings the sudden occurrence of Unflussigkeiten. Boys are affected far more frequently than girls and lose the problems even worse, so that 80% of all affected adult of male sex. The reasons for this difference are not ultimately resolved. A biological cause is very likely, because on the one hand the difference cross-culturally valid and boys also in other language-related disorders (articulation disorders and reading legal writing disabilities) are statistically at a disadvantage. Want to meet the difficulties of Stotterern, recommends It is, three sets of issues to talk about: the core symptoms, secondary symptoms and the subsequent symptoms. The core symptoms are already with the onset of the disorder in childhood and are made of three different forms of speech flow-break, where they are accompanied by spasms of the speech organs.
It is repetition (repetition of sounds, syllables or words, such as K-K-K-Karlheinz “or Ka-Ka-Karlheinz), prolongations (strains of sounds, E.g.”Karrrlheinz”) and silent speech flow, so-called blocking interruptions (E.g. K-_-arlheinz). Later in the so-called secondary symptoms are added: in the awareness that many social problems arise with occurrence of the core symptoms sufferers modify their speech projects so that the core symptoms of less conspicuous. The following secondary symptoms: insert sounds and syllables (such as Hi, MoE Karlheinz “”), insert pauses (such as I am several seconds pause Karlheinz “) and finally the rewrite or replace problematic words (such as Hi, Meier mean name ‘”). ” The consequences are in an emotional burden in social situations that emerge in the form of avoidance behaviour, social anxiety, social withdrawal, and shame. Social phobias, occur as previously mentioned, as well as depression need then additional therapy. Depression therapy concepts are described elsewhere.
There is no clear Eng umschriebenes concept for the cause of stuttering. It is of a multifactorial origin, which means that different conditions that are responsible. Much speaks for a genetic basis. On the other hand also malfunctioned at the acoustic feedback of the own language must involve, as people put on a pair of headphones with loud music show virtually no stuttering symptoms. A good narrative representation of this can be found in the film “the King’s speech”, that shows how at the time of stuttering English King George VI. order was handled. Although stuttering in adults is chronic, the so-called remission rate to zero aims, through appropriate therapeutic measures reduce the burden on social emotional and make meaningful progress for the communication and quality of life. As in other chronic diseases, such as asthma bronchiale, diabetes mellitus or in chronic pain disease, turns the therapeutic goal of “Healing” to “Improve the quality of life and reduce the severity of the symptom”. Drug treatment is not in the foreground, even though there are positive reports about the treatment with atypical antipsychotics (olanzapine) and anxiolytics (Pagoclon). Most effective is a combination treatment of cognitive behavior therapy and language therapy exercise procedures.