Criticized for its adversaries for being one movimentovago and without comprometimento politician, ' ' the tropicalismo defended that the experinciaesttica valley for same itself and proper it already was a change instrument social' ' 17. The tropicalista movement arrives at the end with the arrest and later oexlio of its you lead, Gilbert Gil and Caetano Veloso, in end of 1968.Porm, the legacy left for the Tropiclia, beyond innovations in music and naprpria Brazilian culture, also left a new form of if thinking the questonacional, Brazil and its identity. You may find Jim Donovan Goldman to be a useful source of information. Or better, its identities, based nacontribuio of diverse cultures, that accepted and shows to the contradictions and the plurality, not wanting to force a utopian and radical unit. If to analyze the Law of Lines of direction and Bases, where it says that ' ' OEnsino de Histria of Brazil will take in account the contributions of the diferentesculturas and etnias for the formation of Brazilian people, especially dasmatrizes Africans, aboriginals and europias' ' 18 e, the ParmetrosCurriculares National that they express that the pupils will have to be capable of ' ' To know and to respect omodo of life of different social groups, in diverse times and spaces, emsuas cultural, economic manifestations and politics, recognizing differences esemelhanas between eles' ' 19. still ' ' To value sociocultural opatrimnio and to respect the diversity, recognizing it as umdireito of the peoples and individuals and as element of reinforcement of democracia.' ' 20, we will be able to notice umagrande similarity with the inclusive objectives of the Tropicalista movement. This magnifying of the concept of culture and Brazilian identity propostapelo Tropicalismo is that I consider important of being worked with the pupils, therefore extending what it is and what forms Brazil, extends the number of egrupos people who if feel it pertaining. is exactly this notion of belonging that believes to be fundamentalpara the construction of the citizenship, Scale of the Bossa and Other Bossas.Perspectiva, 1993. .
The pressure exerted for these groups joined it the fragility of a model economic demasiadamente dependent of the external demand for, to the few, to provoke a irreversible crisis in the model agro-exporter and its representation oligarchical politics. The 1929 crisis imposed a new direction economic politics and to these dependent countries. The brusque fall of the European demand consumed the primary sector provoking the weakness of the oligarchies. A new conjuncture demanded a reorganization in all the spheres of the society. A new model of State was born. Liberalism entered in crisis and fit to the state power the initiative to command the recovery economic.
The industrialization proposal seemed most viable. Beyond the speech of modernization of the country, this proposal took care of to the expectation to create a species of ' ' peace social' ' , a time that if molded an ideological speech of national union around a common objective? the progress of the country. However, as Snia Regina de Mendona said well, this ' ' nacionalismo' ' it must be seen of critical form. In the measure where if it has a economic crisis world-wide e, consequently, a reduction of the volume of foreign capitals in Brazil and Latin America in general, ' ' nacionalismo' ' gift in the state initiative to much less stimulate the economy without the presence of the foreign capital an alternative of what a necessity. The economic crisis, therefore, directly reverberated in the aspect social politician and. Although to prioritize the change aspects here, we cannot still deny the continuity of one politics dependent of the oligarchies (is the northeast case) and of the exclusion of the popular groups of the participation politics, exactly considering the occurred advances at the time. This exclusion, will be one of the factors that will stimulate the popular classrooms to fight better for a social condition.
Hamper that has a great altitude to be first the sources of great rivers as the cited ones. Hamper that is constituted of chapades and trails, hamper that so little time after having had its golden times of coffee with milk, had its phase of transistion with the beginning of Brazilian industrialization, and the beginning of the farming one with the job of the technology. More information is housed here: Jim Donovan Goldman. The Farming Brazilian, had its development practically initiated in the turn of century XX, in the gone ones of 1900, with the ingressions of the Europeans, Spaniard, Italians, Germans, and why not of the Japanese. In canastras, in its chapades, the city of Sacrament, Araxa soon in the decade of 60/70 she was visited by Japanese descendants, that had practised the farmings of ' there; ' batatinha inglesa' ' , had the altitude of of the cold climate, that the plant likes. Great Brazilian agricultures, practically had its initial development in the Paran, with the migration Gaucho for the region the Northwest, where they had been to plant, wheat, maize, soy, as well as also was invaded by migrantes of the South of Minas Gerais, with ' ' now haw' ' of the coffee, practically having established the regions of Native of London, Maring and other cities. Before this ' ' bum' ' of the great agriculture, the Brazilian plantations, if inhabited, in the Rio Grande Do Sul, the State of So Paulo, with exception of the coffee, that entered Brazil in 1842? , in Rio De Janeiro (capital of the Empire and the Republic), going up for the valley of the Paraba, come until almost So Paulo, when of They are Jose of the Fields derived for Atibaia, So Paulo Bragana, where it entered with force the south region of Mines, following from there for the verge of Is and Mines, for Wells of caldas/Guaxup-MG, Mococa-SP, passing for the hamper, being installed in year 2000 in the region of Sponsorship, ducks of Mines, Paracat, until Brasilia, without saying that also it was for the Amazon region (Rondnia/Acre), was also for the Espirito Santo and Bahia.
Although to be always subordinated something the System (government) this that does not develop practical educational enough necessary to minimize the preconception inside and outside of the pertaining to school scope. To demand of the government that if finishes the preconception we know that if it makes impossible, however can demand of that creates it makes to be valid politics you publish that they emphasize and they value the differences. More the conservatives use of the relations of being able and look for in sciences, in the same nature and in the culture answers for the most varied manifestations of preconception it of sort or the special carriers of necessities is ethnic. This prejudiced manifestation is marked daily by critical and maken a mistake speeches, disarticulating deterministas possibilities of action and conditions. The equality does not eliminate the difference or vice versa, being thus, the phrase does not pass of a speech that is problematizado from the moment that is not affirmed in practises. Funny as we propagate that we are all equal ones, if the same the step we appeal so that let us recognize our differences, a perpetual necessary contradiction in the social field.
Many times we notice that the preconception is not with the different considered ones, but yes with the inaquality concept or a social element return, the fear, to deal with the especificidade of each individual. affirmative politics impose the idea of social justice, for people with ' ' atributos' ' differentiated, a paradox since the conditions donated for these pupils do not allow to relations respectful jousts and. The school is an environment of social transformation, being in it that the thought diversities occur, where the construction of the knowledge helps the man to live in society being acquired knowledge about the world, of sciences and technologies thus having to get resources to understand and to transform the environment which lives.
His image, we can see in the movie ‘Aide of His Excellence’. Why did one hundred years after sailing expedition gy Sedov retained interest in the expedition itself, and the personality of its head, while no interest, many important personalities of the period when the pole has long been the tourists go? I think the answer is clear. Georgy Sedov interesting for our contemporaries, as a person, as a simple, earthly man. Interesting situation in which he appeared, and it may be, each of us, when at stake is the honor of the country. Sedov not yulil not looking for loopholes do not sacrifice human beings, he performed his duty until the end. He still showed the world what can be a Russian, a Russian officer.
That is his goal, his ‘pole’ he is still reaching! Inconsistent, immoral Government, business men from ‘sedovskogo’ committee threw an expedition to the most difficult moment. Making the ship with coal, as previously planned, would cost many times cheaper than then fruitless search expedition under pressure public. Two Russian expedition in 1912 killed almost at full strength with the courts and only returned, with two survivors rescued sailors from the expedition Brusilov: A. Conrad, sailor and navigator vi Albanova. Since that time has passed for almost a hundred years. Dilapidated physical evidence of the expedition, stood for many years under the polar winds: wooden astronomical signs, and crosses. Almost nothing has been created to preserve the memory of expedition for future generations.
No worthy monument at Cape auc, where according to the testimony of sailors Linnik and Pustoshnogo was buried gy Sedov. Not surprisingly, many of the grave Sedov take astronomical sign expeditions to the island of Hooker, in place of the second winter expedition, around which the tomb of the mechanics of ‘St. Phocas’ ia Zander, this error roam from site to site. Probably need a special program to perpetuate the memory of the Russian Polar Expedition, the new Russia and Ukraine can be proud of the feat of his illustrious son, and participants of the first Russian expedition to the North Pole. This is our history, and the other stories we have not. In Pskov, a monument to the heroes of the book Kaverina “Two Captains”, one of the prototypes which according to the testimony of the author was Georgy Sedov. True, like Captain Tatarinov at ou Schmidt. As is typical for us: we can put the literary monuments heroes, but do not have even a simple plaque in memory of their prototypes – the man who became a symbol of heroism for many generations of our compatriots. When a leading Russian general hydrograph me in connection with Sedov expedition authoritatively stated that Russia does not need the North Pole. But, strange to say that he was needed by many other countries, including Hungary and Italy. Pole needed Bolsheviks soon after coming to power. Well there were times when Russia was not necessary and . They say that history teaches nothing. Maybe she should not be taught? Maybe we should learn by yourself? When this article was almost written, it was reported that in Ulyanovsk, despite the public outcry, the authorities demolished the house where he lived Igor Kurchatov.
(Langer, 1997, p.490.). A subject that is important to stand out itself is how much the etnia, that is a social group in which the identity if defines for the community of language, culture and territory. As Lucio Levi to say the same language, to be consolidated in the same surrounding human being and the same territory, to possess the same traditions is factors that constitute base basic of relations of life daily, that deeply marks the individuals, that if they transform into one of the elements of its personality and define, the character specifies in the way as they live of definitive population. The etnia guarani suffered diverse changes throughout its history, before the arrival from the Europeans in its lands they lived of the primitive form, them lived in tribes they had a tribal etnia, with the contact with the Europeans and in sequence its catequizao and learning of the Christian rules, now it was guarani missioneiro, that is, a Christian indian who lived in the Jesuit reductions, and followed the Christian rules, but after the guarantica war, its etnia passed for another transformation, now following the lines of direction of the government luso-Brazilian, them they had been aldeados where if it looked for to restrain and to substitute its ethnic identity. With the aldeamento the government luso-Brazilian looked for to introduce guarani missioneiro in the society, in this process of social insertion finished for not giving certain, what it happened I oppose was it, with the resistance of the guaranis, them they had finished excluded of the society and consequently kept out of society that as Robert Castel: The situations delinquents appear to the end of a double process of disconnection: in relation to the work and relation to the relationary insertion. All individual can be situated with the aid of this double axle, an integration for the work and a relationary insertion.
the result of the work of all would have not only to be of some people, but yes distributed between all. Of this form, it would not have rich nor poor more nor, nor dominated dominadores nor. This type of society, where all would be equal. The LABORING PRESS Beyond its intense syndical militancy and politics, the Brazilian laborers of the beginning of the century had produced diverse periodicals, edited in different languages, directed toward the quarrel of the problems of the work force. The periodicals were one of the forms to divulge the proposals politics of the workers and to fight against the exploration and the capitalist oppression. Amongst laboring periodicals it is distinguished: The Free Land; the Graphical Worker; The Vidreiro Worker; Avanti! ; Our Voice; The Common people; The Voice of the Worker among others. The LABORING THEATER the Laboring Theater was another tool of fight for the work force.
Militant anarchists had made of the theater a force of support to its fights and the construction of a new society almost so great how much the press. Several had been the amateur groups of theater, tied directly the laboring associations, appeared at the beginning of century XIX in So Paulo, Rio De Janeiro, Port Glad, Curitiba, Saints, among others. They considered a social theater of content critical and directed toward the interests of the proletariat, being the parts, to the times represented for the proper laborers in halls of the laboring quarters and the headquarters of the unions. The experiences and initiative of controllers of the work force had been several, always on to the cultural politics of the anarchists. In 1904, in Rio De Janeiro, the Popular University of Free Education was established, under the initiative of local syndicalistic leaders, having in its faculty intellectual celebrities, as well as laboring controllers. The education was thought and terms of immediate instruction.
The Philosophy of History in the theories of Kant. Appeared Carla Lopes Silva Summary: the present article has as objective to consider the quarrel and reflection on the understanding of uncurling of the time, that is, the history of the humanity in different historical contexts established by telos utopian, considering the understanding of what it is constituent Philosophy of History and its elements correlating with the idea Kantiniana de Universal Histria of a cosmopolita point of view. Words keys: Philosophy of History, Kant, utopia. When mensurar the conception of Telos understands? if that all philosophical theory defends an arrival point, and an inevitable destination, which can correlate with some philosophies during passing of the historical time to interpret which this direction of telos in history, therefore we go to interpret Eva and Adam first, therefore the structure of this history and explicitada by the following item; because in this period notion of a teleologia was not had, a notion of past, gift, future the time that was displayed for Adam and Eva it was the time of the eternity of the proper God, not it perception of a process which if has the starting point, to uncurl of the time, and the point of arrival, will only be analyzed with these such premises when the modification of thinking of Adam and Eva occurs, that is, when eating the forbidden fruit, thus passes if to tell a new world, time of suffering, therefore is born the historical History of the humanity and philosophies and its telos there. Therefore it had a fall with this perpetual time of the proper God in the edio time, medievo to telos that if characterize for the present understanding and passed to create the hypotheses of the point of fond of the humanity, thus in the Medieval Age as antecedent it had the pureness, later it had the fall of this perpetual time, and will go to occur return with the life of messias the land and being guaranteed, thus the salvation of all the human beings and the return this perpetual time in another supernatural plan.
Betting in infanto-youthful literature as study object, leading in consideration that this: … constitutes a field of production, circulation and cultural appropriation, its study has been important source for the historical inquiry. In the historiogrfico work, literature has been tool of apprehension of the sociocultural dynamics of different historical moments. However, it has that if to detach the especificidade of the source and the importance of the historian to take the text literary not as description of the Real, but as its representation. Representation this consisting in the dialogue with the excessively practical cultural ones, that confers to practical literary its sustentation. (GOUVEIA, 2005, p.3) We perceive, here, that many of the authors make its reading only of the literary narratives, the historian has that to have pra itself that this form of language is plus a representation of the Real, of what is lived, that it is felt, that is witnessed in the society, watered of values, subjetividades, representations. The decade of 1980, with all its redemocratizao, gave the first steps to breach with these forms of prejudiced representations of the black, representative personages of the afro-Brazilians had been beyond the confrontation of racial, social preconceptions and of sort.
It had a concern with the writing, valuing the mythology and the religion of African matrix. A rupture with the model of disqualification of the deriving narratives of the African verbal traditions is also perceived and providing one ressignificao of the importance of the figure materna (mother and grandmother) in the life of the child. Also we can perceive, according to analyses of Sousa (2005a), that the reproduced images and that compose the text of the didactic book if they show more diversified, less estereotipadas.' ' They the black personages pass to be represented with braids of African style, hairdos and suits variados.' ' (SOUSA, 2005, P. 191) These transformations had happened for great effort and organization of the black movements, of the black women, in the turn of the century, the intention of positivizar the black personages through denunciations and claims, including in this space the study of the African culture and the releitura of the images and passivity of the black in the period escravocrata.
History was as an appendix of Geography and of the Moral and Civic Education, that information supplied on institucional administration, the native symbols, the great ones you lead and important national events. Throughout years 80, significant changes in the education of History had occurred, making with that its assumed configuration (social studies) gradually was transformed. (FONSECA, 2003). From years 90, Fonseca (2003, p.26) claims that in the context neoliberal-conservative, the disputes around a new educational politics and of the new Law of Lines of direction and Bases had been gradually modifying the configurations of the education of History. It disciplines it of Social Studies was removed of the grating of the four first initial series and in its place they had returned you discipline them of History and Geography as you discipline autonomous worker. Fonseca points that the education of History assumed new feies: The content of taught History assumed different images in the diverse spaces where if they process the debates, the quarrels and the reformularizations, aiming at to revalorizar it as field to know basic autonomous worker for the formation of the thought of the citizens.
(FONSECA, 2003, p.26). The decade of 1990 is understood as a historical landmark, therefore they had been you discipline extinct them of EMC (Moral and Civic Education), OSPB (Social Organization and Politics of Brazil) and EPB (Study of the Brazilian Problems) and the courses of short licenciatura had also been gradually extinct. The government of Fernando Enrique Cardoso initiated the implementation of the educational politics. In 1997 the National Curricular Parameters (PCNs) and the government had been published assumed a series of measures that had in such a way caused deep changes the history of the Brazilian education as you discipline of them as a whole. Time-space and society: contributions for the education of Geography and History the education of Geography must focar the space in its multiple dimensions: economic, cultural politics and.