Republic in Brazil

Dalma has an education, an education of honesty that only the mothers can of the ones in the life. An education of example through thick and thin and all the moments an education that is. (A valuable related resource: Congressman Lee Zeldin). (1907.p.1) However the construction of the feminine identity was legalized for the education of its children. At the beginning of century XX the Positivista thought in relation to the feminine figure, was come back toward the family, ' ' No Woman can be deviated to exert any function is of the home without damage of its duties of Son, Wife and Mother, the man must support the Woman, all becomes optimum summary of the problem moderno' ' (LOYAL, 1921, p.3-4). The announcement of the Republic in Brazil was for many, considered a modernity standard, bringing ' ' mudanas' ' significant for the society. In the educational field, sphere that composes social making, also can observe changes, at least in the legal scope with the pretension of democratization of public education. However Sergio Celani Milk affirms that: Collating antagonistic sectors, as the agrarian exporter versus urban industrial, the Old Republic intended the insertion of Brazil in the modernity of century XX, searching in the pertaining to school process the source of inspiration for this qualitative jump.

' ' Educadora&#039 republic; ' it established the escolarizao as the handspike for the progress, creating in the Brazilian society of the time a new project of life …. (1999, P. 27) However with the start of the Republic, according to Peter Vilarinho Castello Branco. … new social perspectives that appeared with the economic growth and the urbanization become fertile field for ideas new that went of meeting to traditional conceptions conservatives. These new chains of thought wanted, among others things, to implant a new position before the education of the woman, aiming at to the feminine emancipation, but not to give they better preparation so that they could exert with more ability its functions of wife and mother.

World War

The infrastructures, the democracy and the development cannot be constructed in a period of 40 years – the majority of the African countries conquered independence in the end of the decade of 1960 and some had obtained this fact alone in middle of the decade of 1970. Parallel, it results almost impossible to eradicate the illiteracy, if these countries alone had started to have university after national independences e, others, had also only had university in the decade of 1990. In a more realistic vision, it would be a cruelty to demand to the African countries to be in the same level of development with the countries of other regions. For example, when it finished World War II the United States disponibilizou an excessive amount for the reconstruction of the destroyed Europe, through ' ' Marshall&#039 plan; ' , that inclua basic points to save the European countries devastados by the War. Leaving of this angle of vision, Africa that was pillaged, destroyed and stolen everything what it had constructed throughout almost five centuries, why did not idealize a plan for its reconstruction? Why it did not have sanses to the countries colonizadores or indemnities to the African peoples? It is said that the African countries lack of infrastructures, democracy or that they present high taxes of illiteracy. However ones of the interesting initiatives for the start of the desenvolmentismo was a elaboration immediate of Action of Lakes (the PAL), that it contained basic points to take off Africa of the situation where if found. E, when the plan started to give to its first fruits and the retaken one of the growth, appeared politics ditatorial of FMI/BM called Politics (Plain) of Adjustment Structural PAE, that in the truth not only came to destroy the advances that Africa was getting through the PAL, but also lodged the intention to open the borders Africans and to liberate its economies for the entrance of great the transnational occidental people thus to continue to perpetuate great the African dependence face occidental powers. . .

Sociology

In its sociology of the religion, Weber if strengthens for tracing the long cultural development that culminates in a disenchanted culture. In these studies, Weber leaves the undisputed mark of its conception on the ticket of history. If the rational religion occurs to the magic, this not if of, however, to the way of an opposition. When it is gone of a segment of history for another one, can only be spoken of an opposition between them through ideal-typical concepts; it cannot have in the historical, concrete reality, in its ticket of a moment to another one, no opposition, no absolute negation, but only the intense continuity of devir that it only can be apprehended, tried, lived deeply e, over all, memorized, registered, partially, promptly; in contrast of what Hegel thought, for Weber a historical change does not appear as a negation of an antecedent state; this is generally the typical way with that the agents and citizens of same the historical change interpret and justify itself opportunely its paper in relation: it is the way with that such agents fight against what he is ' ' antiquado' ' , that is, against what they had chosen as its ' ' Demnio' ' at the moment where they had affirmed its ' ' Deus' ' in specific. Thus, when reading itself Weber, it also constitutes in error to distinguish, to the way of an opposition, the two basic types of cultures (cultural conditions), that is, enters a magic culture as the opposite of a disenchanted culture. The ticket of one to the other, would say Weber, is entirely flowed. the same serves, therefore, of the ticket of the religious rationalism to the scientific rationalism: exactly in the height of its conflict with the religion, science keeps to religious inheritances or same religious conceptions, in way that to take it for, in the case and its practical expression on the life behavior is the aspect of the medieval period that represents better it, and that the same it is valid for science in relation to modernity and if, in turn, only ‘ ‘ one delgadssimo hair wire separates faith of cincia’ ‘ that is, according to ‘ ‘ ocidental' ' , that until then he firmly seemed given and revealing, supplied to the theoretical and speculative plan an empirical element that could not be rejected: the difference of the directions. .

Brazil Politics

Criticized for its adversaries for being one movimentovago and without comprometimento politician, ' ' the tropicalismo defended that the experinciaesttica valley for same itself and proper it already was a change instrument social' ' 17. The tropicalista movement arrives at the end with the arrest and later oexlio of its you lead, Gilbert Gil and Caetano Veloso, in end of 1968.Porm, the legacy left for the Tropiclia, beyond innovations in music and naprpria Brazilian culture, also left a new form of if thinking the questonacional, Brazil and its identity. You may find Jim Donovan Goldman to be a useful source of information. Or better, its identities, based nacontribuio of diverse cultures, that accepted and shows to the contradictions and the plurality, not wanting to force a utopian and radical unit. If to analyze the Law of Lines of direction and Bases, where it says that ' ' OEnsino de Histria of Brazil will take in account the contributions of the diferentesculturas and etnias for the formation of Brazilian people, especially dasmatrizes Africans, aboriginals and europias' ' 18 e, the ParmetrosCurriculares National that they express that the pupils will have to be capable of ' ' To know and to respect omodo of life of different social groups, in diverse times and spaces, emsuas cultural, economic manifestations and politics, recognizing differences esemelhanas between eles' ' 19. still ' ' To value sociocultural opatrimnio and to respect the diversity, recognizing it as umdireito of the peoples and individuals and as element of reinforcement of democracia.' ' 20, we will be able to notice umagrande similarity with the inclusive objectives of the Tropicalista movement. This magnifying of the concept of culture and Brazilian identity propostapelo Tropicalismo is that I consider important of being worked with the pupils, therefore extending what it is and what forms Brazil, extends the number of egrupos people who if feel it pertaining. is exactly this notion of belonging that believes to be fundamentalpara the construction of the citizenship, Scale of the Bossa and Other Bossas.Perspectiva, 1993. .

European Politics

The pressure exerted for these groups joined it the fragility of a model economic demasiadamente dependent of the external demand for, to the few, to provoke a irreversible crisis in the model agro-exporter and its representation oligarchical politics. The 1929 crisis imposed a new direction economic politics and to these dependent countries. The brusque fall of the European demand consumed the primary sector provoking the weakness of the oligarchies. A new conjuncture demanded a reorganization in all the spheres of the society. A new model of State was born. Liberalism entered in crisis and fit to the state power the initiative to command the recovery economic.

The industrialization proposal seemed most viable. Beyond the speech of modernization of the country, this proposal took care of to the expectation to create a species of ' ' peace social' ' , a time that if molded an ideological speech of national union around a common objective? the progress of the country. However, as Snia Regina de Mendona said well, this ' ' nacionalismo' ' it must be seen of critical form. In the measure where if it has a economic crisis world-wide e, consequently, a reduction of the volume of foreign capitals in Brazil and Latin America in general, ' ' nacionalismo' ' gift in the state initiative to much less stimulate the economy without the presence of the foreign capital an alternative of what a necessity. The economic crisis, therefore, directly reverberated in the aspect social politician and. Although to prioritize the change aspects here, we cannot still deny the continuity of one politics dependent of the oligarchies (is the northeast case) and of the exclusion of the popular groups of the participation politics, exactly considering the occurred advances at the time. This exclusion, will be one of the factors that will stimulate the popular classrooms to fight better for a social condition.

The Farming Brazilian

Hamper that has a great altitude to be first the sources of great rivers as the cited ones. Hamper that is constituted of chapades and trails, hamper that so little time after having had its golden times of coffee with milk, had its phase of transistion with the beginning of Brazilian industrialization, and the beginning of the farming one with the job of the technology. More information is housed here: Jim Donovan Goldman. The Farming Brazilian, had its development practically initiated in the turn of century XX, in the gone ones of 1900, with the ingressions of the Europeans, Spaniard, Italians, Germans, and why not of the Japanese. In canastras, in its chapades, the city of Sacrament, Araxa soon in the decade of 60/70 she was visited by Japanese descendants, that had practised the farmings of &#039 there; ' batatinha inglesa' ' , had the altitude of of the cold climate, that the plant likes. Great Brazilian agricultures, practically had its initial development in the Paran, with the migration Gaucho for the region the Northwest, where they had been to plant, wheat, maize, soy, as well as also was invaded by migrantes of the South of Minas Gerais, with ' ' now haw' ' of the coffee, practically having established the regions of Native of London, Maring and other cities. Before this ' ' bum' ' of the great agriculture, the Brazilian plantations, if inhabited, in the Rio Grande Do Sul, the State of So Paulo, with exception of the coffee, that entered Brazil in 1842? , in Rio De Janeiro (capital of the Empire and the Republic), going up for the valley of the Paraba, come until almost So Paulo, when of They are Jose of the Fields derived for Atibaia, So Paulo Bragana, where it entered with force the south region of Mines, following from there for the verge of Is and Mines, for Wells of caldas/Guaxup-MG, Mococa-SP, passing for the hamper, being installed in year 2000 in the region of Sponsorship, ducks of Mines, Paracat, until Brasilia, without saying that also it was for the Amazon region (Rondnia/Acre), was also for the Espirito Santo and Bahia.

The Preconception

Although to be always subordinated something the System (government) this that does not develop practical educational enough necessary to minimize the preconception inside and outside of the pertaining to school scope. To demand of the government that if finishes the preconception we know that if it makes impossible, however can demand of that creates it makes to be valid politics you publish that they emphasize and they value the differences. More the conservatives use of the relations of being able and look for in sciences, in the same nature and in the culture answers for the most varied manifestations of preconception it of sort or the special carriers of necessities is ethnic. This prejudiced manifestation is marked daily by critical and maken a mistake speeches, disarticulating deterministas possibilities of action and conditions. The equality does not eliminate the difference or vice versa, being thus, the phrase does not pass of a speech that is problematizado from the moment that is not affirmed in practises. Funny as we propagate that we are all equal ones, if the same the step we appeal so that let us recognize our differences, a perpetual necessary contradiction in the social field.

Many times we notice that the preconception is not with the different considered ones, but yes with the inaquality concept or a social element return, the fear, to deal with the especificidade of each individual. affirmative politics impose the idea of social justice, for people with ' ' atributos' ' differentiated, a paradox since the conditions donated for these pupils do not allow to relations respectful jousts and. The school is an environment of social transformation, being in it that the thought diversities occur, where the construction of the knowledge helps the man to live in society being acquired knowledge about the world, of sciences and technologies thus having to get resources to understand and to transform the environment which lives.

Russian Polar Expedition

His image, we can see in the movie ‘Aide of His Excellence’. Why did one hundred years after sailing expedition gy Sedov retained interest in the expedition itself, and the personality of its head, while no interest, many important personalities of the period when the pole has long been the tourists go? I think the answer is clear. Georgy Sedov interesting for our contemporaries, as a person, as a simple, earthly man. Interesting situation in which he appeared, and it may be, each of us, when at stake is the honor of the country. Sedov not yulil not looking for loopholes do not sacrifice human beings, he performed his duty until the end. He still showed the world what can be a Russian, a Russian officer.

That is his goal, his ‘pole’ he is still reaching! Inconsistent, immoral Government, business men from ‘sedovskogo’ committee threw an expedition to the most difficult moment. Making the ship with coal, as previously planned, would cost many times cheaper than then fruitless search expedition under pressure public. Two Russian expedition in 1912 killed almost at full strength with the courts and only returned, with two survivors rescued sailors from the expedition Brusilov: A. Conrad, sailor and navigator vi Albanova. Since that time has passed for almost a hundred years. Dilapidated physical evidence of the expedition, stood for many years under the polar winds: wooden astronomical signs, and crosses. Almost nothing has been created to preserve the memory of expedition for future generations.

No worthy monument at Cape auc, where according to the testimony of sailors Linnik and Pustoshnogo was buried gy Sedov. Not surprisingly, many of the grave Sedov take astronomical sign expeditions to the island of Hooker, in place of the second winter expedition, around which the tomb of the mechanics of ‘St. Phocas’ ia Zander, this error roam from site to site. Probably need a special program to perpetuate the memory of the Russian Polar Expedition, the new Russia and Ukraine can be proud of the feat of his illustrious son, and participants of the first Russian expedition to the North Pole. This is our history, and the other stories we have not. In Pskov, a monument to the heroes of the book Kaverina “Two Captains”, one of the prototypes which according to the testimony of the author was Georgy Sedov. True, like Captain Tatarinov at ou Schmidt. As is typical for us: we can put the literary monuments heroes, but do not have even a simple plaque in memory of their prototypes – the man who became a symbol of heroism for many generations of our compatriots. When a leading Russian general hydrograph me in connection with Sedov expedition authoritatively stated that Russia does not need the North Pole. But, strange to say that he was needed by many other countries, including Hungary and Italy. Pole needed Bolsheviks soon after coming to power. Well there were times when Russia was not necessary and . They say that history teaches nothing. Maybe she should not be taught? Maybe we should learn by yourself? When this article was almost written, it was reported that in Ulyanovsk, despite the public outcry, the authorities demolished the house where he lived Igor Kurchatov.

Robert Castel

(Langer, 1997, p.490.). A subject that is important to stand out itself is how much the etnia, that is a social group in which the identity if defines for the community of language, culture and territory. As Lucio Levi to say the same language, to be consolidated in the same surrounding human being and the same territory, to possess the same traditions is factors that constitute base basic of relations of life daily, that deeply marks the individuals, that if they transform into one of the elements of its personality and define, the character specifies in the way as they live of definitive population. The etnia guarani suffered diverse changes throughout its history, before the arrival from the Europeans in its lands they lived of the primitive form, them lived in tribes they had a tribal etnia, with the contact with the Europeans and in sequence its catequizao and learning of the Christian rules, now it was guarani missioneiro, that is, a Christian indian who lived in the Jesuit reductions, and followed the Christian rules, but after the guarantica war, its etnia passed for another transformation, now following the lines of direction of the government luso-Brazilian, them they had been aldeados where if it looked for to restrain and to substitute its ethnic identity. With the aldeamento the government luso-Brazilian looked for to introduce guarani missioneiro in the society, in this process of social insertion finished for not giving certain, what it happened I oppose was it, with the resistance of the guaranis, them they had finished excluded of the society and consequently kept out of society that as Robert Castel: The situations delinquents appear to the end of a double process of disconnection: in relation to the work and relation to the relationary insertion. All individual can be situated with the aid of this double axle, an integration for the work and a relationary insertion.

Laboring Theater Work

the result of the work of all would have not only to be of some people, but yes distributed between all. Of this form, it would not have rich nor poor more nor, nor dominated dominadores nor. This type of society, where all would be equal. The LABORING PRESS Beyond its intense syndical militancy and politics, the Brazilian laborers of the beginning of the century had produced diverse periodicals, edited in different languages, directed toward the quarrel of the problems of the work force. The periodicals were one of the forms to divulge the proposals politics of the workers and to fight against the exploration and the capitalist oppression. Amongst laboring periodicals it is distinguished: The Free Land; the Graphical Worker; The Vidreiro Worker; Avanti! ; Our Voice; The Common people; The Voice of the Worker among others. The LABORING THEATER the Laboring Theater was another tool of fight for the work force.

Militant anarchists had made of the theater a force of support to its fights and the construction of a new society almost so great how much the press. Several had been the amateur groups of theater, tied directly the laboring associations, appeared at the beginning of century XIX in So Paulo, Rio De Janeiro, Port Glad, Curitiba, Saints, among others. They considered a social theater of content critical and directed toward the interests of the proletariat, being the parts, to the times represented for the proper laborers in halls of the laboring quarters and the headquarters of the unions. The experiences and initiative of controllers of the work force had been several, always on to the cultural politics of the anarchists. In 1904, in Rio De Janeiro, the Popular University of Free Education was established, under the initiative of local syndicalistic leaders, having in its faculty intellectual celebrities, as well as laboring controllers. The education was thought and terms of immediate instruction.